a. Radiation damage can cause a cell to either die or continue being viable but mutated.
b. The two events above are very different when it comes to the dose dependence of their probability to occur and also when it comes to their impact on the organism to which the cell belongs.
c. Cell killing by radiation is said to be a "deterministic effect".
d. Cell mutating by radiation is said to be a "nonstochastic effect".
a. has a threshold in dose but the severity of the effect is otherwise dose-independent.
b. has a threshold in dose and the severity of the effect increases with dose.
c. has no threshold in dose and the severity of the effect is a constant function of dose.
d. has no threshold in dose and the severity of the effect increases with dose.
a. deterministc effects.
b. stochastic effects.
a. Stochastic effects have no threshold in dose.
b. The probability of induction of a stochastic effect increases with dose.
c. The severity of a stochastic effect increases with dose.
d. A cancer induced by 1 Gy is not worse than a cancer induced by 0.5 Gy.
a. higher doses than those corresponding to the incidence probability peak have no further effect on the tissue.
b. sublethal damage at high doses is repaired faster than sublethal damage at low doses.
c. increasing the dose beyond the value corresponding to the incidence probability peak results in increasingly larger amounts of cells that are killed by the radiation.
a. at a fixed time interval following irradiation.
b. at random time intervals following irradiation.
c. late in life, i.e. at the same time as spontaneous tumours would.
a. the absolute risk model.
b. the relative risk model.
c. the time-dependent relative risk model.
d. the time-independent relative risk model.
a. victims of radiation accidents.
b. experiments with animals.
c. the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
a. is higher at low dose rates.
b. is lower at low dose rates.
c. is independent of the dose rate.
a. 10% per Sv.
b. 20% per Sv.
c. 30% per Sv.
a. 5% per Sv.
b. 10% per Sv.
c. 20% per Sv.
a. statistically uncertain.